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Hoa Hồng Rosa Rosaceae
Hồng hay hường là tên gọi chung cho các loài thực vật có hoa dạng cây bụi hoặc cây leo lâu năm thuộc chi Rosa, họ Rosaceae, với hơn one hundred loài với màu hoa đa dạng, phân bố từ miền ôn đới đến nhiệt đới. Các loài này nổi tiếng vì hoa đẹp nên thường gọi là hoa hồng. Đa phần có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Á, số ít còn lại có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Âu, Bắc Mỹ, và Tây Bắc Phi. Các loài bản địa, giống cây trồng và cây lai ghép đều được trồng làm cảnh và lấy hương thơm.. Đôi khi các loài này được gọi theo tiếng Trung là tường vi (薔薇).
Đây là các cây bụi mọc đứng hoặc mọc leo, thân và cành có gai. Lá kép lông chim lẻ, lá chét khía răng, có lá kèm. Hoa thơm, màu sắc đa dạng: hồng, trắng, vàng hay đỏ… Hoa thường có nhiều cánh do nhị đực biến thành. Đế hoa hình chén. Quả bế, tụ nhau trong đế hoa dày lên thành quả.
Dưới đây là một số loài hồng tiêu biểu
•Rosa beauvaisii: hồng Beauvais
•Rosa californica: hồng California
•Rosa canina: tầm xuân
•Rosa chinensis: hồng, hường, nguyệt quý hoa
•Rosa cymosa: hồng roi, tầm xuân
•Rosa gallica: hồng Pháp
•Rosa glauca (đồng nghĩa R. rubrifolia): hồng lá đỏ
•Rosa laevigata (đồng nghĩa R. sinica): hồng vụng, kim anh
•Rosa leschenaultiana: hồng Leschenault
•Rosa longicuspis: hồng mũi dài
•Rosa multiflora: tầm xuân nhiều hoa
•Rosa pimpinellifolia: hồng Scotch
•Rosa rubus: hồng đum
•Rosa rugosa: hồng Nhật, hồng Rugosa Rose
•Rosa transmorissonensis: hồng choắt
•Rosa tunquinensis: tầm xuân Bắc, quầng quầng
•Rosa virginiana (đồng nghĩa R. lucida): hồng Virginia
•Rosa yunnanensis: hồng Vân Nam
Hoa hồng trong văn hóa
Với vẻ đẹp, hình dáng và hương thơm nổi bật, hoa hồng là hoa biểu trưng hay được dùng nhất ở phương Tây, tương ứng trong tổng thể với hình tượng hoa sen ở châu Á, cả hai đều gần gũi với biểu tượng bánh xe. Trong văn hóa Ấn Độ, bông hồng vũ trụ Triparasundari được dùng làm vật đối chiếu với vẻ đẹp của người Mẹ thánh thần, biểu thị một sự hoàn mĩ trọn vẹn và không có thiếu sót. Bên cạnh đó, hoa hồng còn tượng trưng cho phần thưởng cuộc sống, tâm hồn, trái tim, tình yêu, và có thể được chiêm ngưỡng như một mandala.
Trong hệ tranh tượng Kitô giáo, hoa hồng hoặc là cái chén hứng máu của Chúa Kitô, hoặc là sự hóa thân của những giọt máu này và thậm chí, là chính vết thương của Chúa.
Hình hoa hồng gô-thích và hoa hồng hướng gió (hình hoa hồng 32 cánh ứng với 32 hướng gió) đánh dấu bước chuyển của xu hướng biểu trưng của hoa hồng sang xu hướng biểu trưng bánh xe.
Saadi de Chiraz trong đạo Hồi quan niệm vườn hoa hồng là vườn của sự quán tưởng.
Trong văn hóa phương Tây, hoa hồng, bởi sự tương hợp với màu máu chảy, thường xuất hiện như là biểu tượng của sự phục sinh huyền bí. Abd Ul Kadir Gilani so sánh hoa hồng với những vết sẹo trên cơ thể sống, trong khi đó F. Portal quan niệm hoa hồng vào màu hồng hợp thành một biểu tượng của sự tái sinh do có quan hệ gần gũi ngữ nghĩa của từ latinh rosa (hoa hồng) với ros (mưa, sương). Với người Hy Lạp hoa hồng vốn là một loài hoa màu trắng, nhưng khi Adonis bị tử thương, nữ thần Aphorodite chạy đến cứu chàng đã bị đâm phải một cái gai và máu đã nhuộm thẫm những bông hồng cung tiến nàng. Chính ý nghĩa biểu trưng về sự tái sinh đã khiến con người, từ thời cổ đại, đặt những bông hồng lên các nấm mộ, và Hecate, nữ thần âm phủ đôi khi được thể hiện với hình ảnh đầu quấn một vòng hoa hồng có 5 lá.
Theo Bède, ở thế kỷ VII mộ của Chúa Giêxu được sơn một màu pha lẫn trắng và đỏ. Hai yếu tố tạo thành màu của hoa hồng này, màu trắng và màu đỏ, với giá trị biểu trưng truyền thống của chúng phản ánh các bình diện từ trần tục đến thiêng liêng, trong sự khác nhau ứng với sự dâng tặng những bông hồng trắng hay đỏ[four].
Hoa hồng đã trở thành biểu tượng của tình yêu và còn hơn thế, của sự dâng hiến tình yêu, của tình yêu trong trắng, tương tự ý nghĩa của hoa sen Ai Cập và cây thủy tiên Hy Lạp[four].
Dù là màu trắng hay màu đỏ, hoa hồng cũng đều được các nhà luyện đan ưa chuộng hơn cả, mà những chuyên luận của họ thường mang những tiêu đề như "Những cây hồng của các nhà triết học". Trong khi đó, hoa hồng màu lam lại biểu tượng của cái bất khả, cái không thể đạt tới.
A rose is a perennial plant of the genus Rosa, inside the family Rosaceae. There are more than 100 species. They kind a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in a number of colours from white via yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller sized numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all broadly grown for their beauty and fragrance. Rose plants variety in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Species from different components of the world effortlessly hybridize, which has given rise to the many varieties of garden roses.
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was possibly borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhodon (Aeolic βρόδον wrodon), connected to Old Persian wrd-, Avestan varəda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr, Armenian vard.[two]
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (two. to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules the leaflets typically have a serrated margin, and frequently a handful of small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (specifically from South east Asia) are evergreen or practically so.
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which normally has only 4. Every single petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is normally white or pink, though in a handful of species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These might be lengthy adequate to be visible when viewed from above and seem as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, creating under the petals and sepals. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. A lot of of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not supply access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a handful of (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits referred to as achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are extremely rich in vitamin C, amongst the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-consuming birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, especially finches, also consume the seeds.
While the sharp objects along a rose stem are typically known as "thorns", they are technically prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as developed by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which constantly originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when increasing more than it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, most likely an adaptation to lessen browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (each of these species develop naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.
Additional information: List of Rosa species
The genus Rosa is subdivided into 4 subgenera:
•Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
•Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
•Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with 1 species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii.
•Rosa (the kind subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
oBanksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
oBracteatae – 3 species, two from China and one particular from India.
oCaninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
oCarolinae – white, pink, and vibrant pink flowered species all from North America.
oChinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-colour roses from China and Burma.
oGallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
oGymnocarpae – a single species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), other individuals in east Asia.
oLaevigatae – a single white flowered species from China
oPimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
oRosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
oSynstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all places.
Makes use of
Roses are greatest identified as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and often indoors. They have been also used for industrial perfumery and industrial reduce flower crops. Some are utilized as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover. They also have minor medicinal utilizes.
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A handful of, largely species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation recognized to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China. Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and chosen for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with a lot of or all of the stamens getting mutated into additional petals.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the improvement of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As lengthy ago as 1840 a collection numbering more than one thousand diverse cultivars, varieties and species was attainable when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.
A couple of species and hybrids are grown for non-floral ornamental use. Amongst these are these grown for prominent hips, such as the flagon shaped hips of Rosa moyesii. Sometimes even the thorns can be treated as an attraction or curiosity, such as with Rosa sericea.
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a common crop for each domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and reduce when in bud, and held in refrigerated circumstances until ready for show at their point of sale.
In temperate climates, reduce roses are usually grown in glasshouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pests and disease manage can be carried out successfully. Considerable quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.
Principal write-up: Rose oil
Rose perfumes are produced from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An connected item is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production approach originated in Persia then spread by means of Arabia and India, but presently about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley near Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany.[citation required] The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar[citation required]. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are utilized. In the French rose oil sector Rosa centifolia is used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about 1 three-thousandth to one particular six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers for example, about two thousand flowers are required to make a single gram of oil.
The major constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a considerable contributor to the scent.
Rose water, produced as a byproduct of rose oil production, is extensively employed in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are identified for their rose syrup, most typically made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows.
The rose hip, the fruit of some species, is used as a minor supply of Vitamin C.
Rose hips are sometimes made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, mostly for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also utilized to generate Rose hip seed oil, which is utilised in skin goods and some makeup merchandise.
The fruits of numerous species have considerable levels of vitamins and have been employed as a food supplement (see previous section). A lot of roses have been utilized in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has extended been used in Chinese conventional medicine. This and other species have been employed for stomach problems, and are getting investigated for controlling cancer development.
Roses are a favored topic in art and therefore employed in various artistic disciplines. They seem in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is recognized for his detailed watercolours of flowers, specifically roses.
Renoir’s painting of cabbage roses, Roses in a vase
Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of nevertheless life, particularly flowers including roses. The Rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named following the artist.
Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses amongst their performs.
Additional information: Rose (symbolism)
The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being employed usually as a symbol.
Pests and diseases
Principal articles: Pests and illnesses of roses and List of rose ailments
Roses are topic to several illnesses. The primary fungal ailments affecting the leaves are rose black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa) and rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa). Stems can be impacted by numerous canker diseases, the most typically observed of which is stem canker (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium). Illnesses of the root zone consist of honey fungus (Armillaria spp.), verticillium wilt, and a variety of species of phytophthora.
Fungal leaf illnesses affecting roses are best prevented by selecting to develop cultivars and species known to be significantly less susceptible to attack, and by using a preventative fungicidal spray program (rather than by trying to remedy an infection after it emerges on the plant). After disease is visible, spread can be minimized via pruning and the use of fungicides, although the actual infection can’t be reversed. Stem cankers are very best treated by pruning out infection as quickly as it is noticed. Root ailments are not usually feasible to treat, once infection has occurred the most sensible line of defence is to ensure that expanding situations maximise plant wellness and thereby avert infection. Phytophthora species are waterborne and for that reason improving drainage and decreasing waterlogging can aid reduce infection.
The major pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybugs are a predator of aphids and must be encouraged in the rose garden.) In locations where they are endemic Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) take a heavy toll on rose flowers and foliage rose blooms can also be destroyed by infestations of thrips (Thysanoptera spp). Roses are also utilized as meals plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses. The spraying with insecticide of roses is often advised but ought to be accomplished with care to decrease the loss of helpful insects.
Image from web page 1164 of “The Ladies’ home journal” (1889)
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Title: The Ladies’ residence journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
Subjects: Women’s periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
Publisher: Philadelphia : [s.n.]
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